Multi‐site Investigation of Genetic Determinants of Warfarin Dose Variability in Latinos


We conducted a multi‐site investigation of genetic determinants of warfarin dose variability in Latinos from the U.S. and Brazil. Patients from four institutions in the United States (n = 411) and Brazil (n = 663) were genotyped for VKORC1 c.‐1639G> A, common CYP2C9 variants, CYP4F23, and NQO12. Multiple regression analysis was used in the U.S. cohort to test the association between warfarin dose and genotype, adjusting for clinical factors, with further testing in an independent cohort of Brazilians. In the U.S. cohort, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants were associated with lower warfarin dose (β = −0.29, P < 2.0 × 10−16; β = −0.21, P = 4.7 × 10−7, respectively) whereas CYP4F2 and NQO1 variants were associated with higher dose (β = 0.10, P = 2 × 10−4; β = 0.10, P = 0.01, respectively). Associations with VKORC1 (β = −0.14, P = 2.0 × 10−16), CYP2C9 (β = −0.07, P = 5.6 × 10−10), and CYP4F2 (β = 0.03, P = 3 × 10−3), but not NQO1*2 (β = 0.01, P = 0.30), were replicated in the Brazilians, explaining 43–46% of warfarin dose variability among the cohorts from the U.S. and Brazil, respectively. We identified genetic associations with warfarin dose requirements in the largest cohort of ancestrally diverse, warfarin‐treated Latinos from the United States and Brazil to date. We confirmed the association of variants in VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 with warfarin dose in Latinos from the United States and Brazil.

Clinical and Translational Science
Heidi E. Steiner
Heidi E. Steiner
Senior Clinical Data Scientist

I love coding in R, biostatistics, and reproducible clinical research.